Knowledge Management

18 Luty 2014Autor: E.S.M.


In the era of physical capital, there was a widespread belief that a company is primarily buildings, machinery, transportation equipment. Today knowledge has become the core of a solid advantage over competition, and the field of intellectual capital is not only an exciting topic for researchers but also for entrepreneurs.

Bill Gates's essay on Shaping the Internet Age, sic "Any company wishing to compete in the Digital Age, is the necessity for the collection and use knowledge more efficiently than its competitors. This will be essential to how the company will deal with business in the twenty-first century”.

Prospering internet service providers in global markets today highlight how the role of knowledge is key to competitive advantage.

Specialists in the field of intellectual capital are divided into the following categories:

  • Relationship Capital - the image of the company and general business relationship with it's environment, ie: customers, their loyalty, distribution channels, various contracts, licensing agreements,
  • Human capital - the knowledge, skills, experience of employees, such as: the ability to solve problems, leadership, entrepreneurship, managerial skills, trade secrets, copyrights and any other intangible assets, are owned by employees, not the company.
  • Structural capital - all intangible assets, including patents, trademarks, rights of protection for industrial designs and utility, various design rights, not included in the financial statements and owned by the company.
  • Intellectual capital is the amount by which the market value of a firm exceeds its tangible (physical and financial) assets less liabilities, hence, the management of intellectual capital is no less important than tangible capital management and financial statements.


For these reasons companies should strive to inspire employees: to develop catchy product names, services, advertising slogans, etc. (which may be registered as trade marks ), making inventions, industrial designs and utility, rationalization projects - in order to protect patent or know-how.

Trademarks meet in a market economy functions distinguished - individualize a product or service - indicate the origin of a particular undertaking, guarantee a certain quality of product or service, promoting a product or service. The registered trade mark can be marked in a conspicuous place international symbol ® - the registered trademark (called registered). Often at different inscriptions, which are considered marks bear an indication ™ (called trade - mark Trade Mark) - or SM (service mark- called service mark) are signs that for some reason have not been registered but the company still considers these characters for their property and warns against imitation.

Contribution in capital companies (limited liability company and joint stock company)

Contribution to cover the shares (in the joint-stock company - shares) in the created or increased capital Ltd. or joint stock company can be made in cash, in-kind or mixed. While the value of the cash contribution stems from the nature of the money, as a measure of value, so much to determine the value of non-monetary contributions (hereinafter contributions in kind) poses some problems, which entailed the need of specific legal regulations about this type of cartridges. Requires August, in the limited liability company agreement or a joint-stock company's foundation documents specified therein subject contribution, the person lodging partner contribution and the number and nominal value of shares acquired in exchange / share. The release cover of shares / shares of a contribution in kind is to have the object of the cartridge so. ability of contribution. It is a syndrome of characteristics that determine whether a particular contribution may be an coverage company's capital, or not. The subject of the contribution in kind may be all right on property and tangible assets, provided, and are transferable and may constitute the assets of the economic entity. In addition, it should exist a reliable method to determine their economic value as well as the components of assets should ensure the company influx of specific economic benefits over a foreseeable period of time, for example cartridge subject to a capital company can not be an inalienable right or provision associated with the work or services (do not possess abilities of contribution Article 14 of the CCC). In light of the current regulatory and legal doctrine of views and case law recognizes out that the subject of the contribution in kind may be: negotiable on property rights such as licenses, patents, inventions, rights of protection for industrial designs, utility models, trademarks, copyrights. Despite some doubts, in practice, the ability -kind confesses confidential: technical knowledge, expertise in the field of industrial, commercial, scientific or organizational defined as stands for know-how.